General Guideliness for Author

Parent Category: Instructions

The manuscript must be written in English, double-spaced throughout (text, abstract, references, tables). Font: 12 pt, Times New Roman, text should not be justified but aligned left. Length of articles should not be more 25 pages (excluding tables and figures). Main headings (Introduction, Materials and methods, Results and Discussions, Conclusion, Acknowledgement, References) are set in bold Roman. Minor headings are set in bold italic Roman. The recommended writing style of the manuscript is according to APA guidelines (

TITLE: Should be in English. It should be short, concise and informative, and should contain key words necessary to facilitate retrieval by a search engine.

RUNNING HEAD: Suggest a short title suitable for use as running head of not more than 50 characters including spaces.

NAMES OF AUTHORS: Should be written immediately below the title in this format:

M.Y. Abu1, H. Erra2 and M.P. Dennet3

The superscript numbers are used to indicate author(s) institutional or organizational affiliation. This information should be provided as footnote at the bottom of the first page.

KEYWORDS: Maximum 5 words. The function of keywords is to highlight information given throughout the manuscript. Words in the title are automatically included in indexes, and keywords serve as additional pointers.

ABSTRACT: Should not be more than 200 words. Manuscript received without an abstract will be returned to the author. It should cover main purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separate from the manuscript, so it must be able to stand alone. Therefore, references, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided.

INTRODUCTION: State the objectives of the research and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Should be listed clearly and succinctly, to include, where appropriate, an adequate account of layout, full description of treatments and appropriate statistical design.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Results should be presented in tables, charts, figures and other appropriate means in order to provide comparative information. Discussion should thoroughly explain the results or findings from the study and interpreted with the support of evidence or data and suitable references. Anomalous or unexpected results must be explained. Mathematical equations must be in editable text and not in images.

CONCLUSION: Should be drawn from the presented results that addresses the problems, issues and hypothesis put forth by the author(s).

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: Should list all supporting institutions and the names (preferably untitled) and the affiliations of those who have assisted and contributed to the study in some way or other.

REFERENCES: Authors are solely responsible for the accuracy of the references cited. 

Citation in text

Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links

Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged.

A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

Web references

 As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Data references

This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List.

Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

References in a special issue

Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Reference management software

Authors only need to select the our journal template when preparing their article and are advised to use reference management tools (EndNote, Mendeley, etc)

In the text, cite the name(s) of the author(s) and years of publication by year first and then alphabetically.

  • One author                        –          (Rahim 2008; Ahmad 2010; Chan 2010)
  • Two authors                      –          (Rahim and Bakar 2008; Ahmad and Chan 2009)
  • Three or more authors        –          (Rahim et al. 2008; Chan et al. 2010)
  • Several references by one author in a particular year or different years
    • Same year               –          (Rahim 2008 a, b, c)
    • Different years         –          (Rahim 2007, 2008, 2010)

In the reference list, authors’ names are listed alphabetically and then according to year sequence (earliest to the more recent) where an author has more than one reference. Arrange in alphabetical sequence of first word or title, where an author has more than one paper published in the same year, then assign letters a, b, c after the year. There is no numbering before each reference cited.

  • With multiple authors, the references are arranged alphabetically by first author, second author, third etc. Rahim, Chan, Pillay (2010) would appear before Rahim, Zakaria and Bakar (2008)
  • For an author having more than one entry, the author’s name in the second and the following entry is replaced by a 3-em rule.
    • Examples:

Articles in periodicals (e.g. journal, bulletin)

• Chin, K.M. and Supaad, M.A. (2010). Resistance of detached organs of the rice plant to the blast. MARDI Res. Bull. 11(3): 385 – 8.

• Marcus, J. (2013). Paraquat adsorption characteristics of some Malaysian soil. Pertanika 10(2): 119 – 24.

• Ahmad, S., Hussein, A. and Kratzer, F.H. (2011). Effect of rancidity on the feeding value of rice bran for chickens. Poult. Sci. 61: 2450 – 2455.


• Ou, H.S. (2014). Studies on stable resistance to rice blast disease. In: Rice breeding, p. 227 – 36. Los Banos: IRRI

• Price, G.J. (2016). Measure of project worth. In: Economic analysis of agricultural projects, 2nd ed. (James, E.M., ed.), p. 229 – 401. Baltimore and London: The John Hopkins University Press

• Anon. (2012). Coffee. In: Ann. Rep. 1984, p. 20 – 1. Serdang: MARDI

• Anon. (2000). Abstracts of MARDI publication, Vol. 1(1971 – 1975), p. 35. Serdang: MARDI

• Chin, K.M. and Supaad, M.A. (2010). Leaf diseases. In: Diseases of rice in Malaysia, p. 35 – 56. Serdang: MARDI


• Zaidah, I. and Shukor, A.R. (2010). Research activities and progress related to post harvest and processing of beverages and spices crops. Proc. sem. on spices and beverages crops, 23 Jan. 1985, Kluang, Johor, (Loh, C. and Mohd. Anuar, A., ed.), p. 104 – 134. Serdang: MARDI


• FAO (2011). Economic reforms for paddy subsector. Retrieved on 25 July 2017 from


Tables and figures must be submitted separately from the text

  • Tabular materials must be kept to a minimum. Only data essential to the understanding of the text should be included in tables.
  • Where manuscript are based on extensive analytical data, choose a small section of representative analyses to indicate the unpublished range on which the paper is based.
  • All tables should be printed on separate sheets placed after the references.
  • Tables should be numbered serially in Arabic numerals and referred to in the text. Title should be written at the top of the table.
  • Abbreviations in the table should be adequately explained in the footnotes.
  • Units of measurement should be placed in column heads.
  • Vertical rules should not be used. Horizontal rules should be inserted only above and below column headings and at the foot of the table.
  • Figures should only be used where they are essential to elucidate the text. They should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals and each must be referred to in the text. Title should be in italics and placed at the bottom of the figures.
  • Drawings should be done in black ink.
  • Clear patterns away from areas of type, and avoid mixing type faces on the same figures, grid marks should point outwards, legends to horizontal axis should run from left to right while for vertical axis legends should run from bottom to top. Use the same symbols (e.g. ● ○ ■ □ ▲◊ ♦ etc) for all the graphs in one paper.
  • The style of the figures within any one paper should be as closely matched as possible.
  • Suitable electronic formats for photographs are .tiff or .jpg files at a minimum resolution of 300 d.p.i.

All authors are required to sign the Authorship Declaration form to declare the originality of their work and no part of it is plagiarised as to constitute an infringement of the Copyright Act 1987. Completed forms must be submitted via mail, fax or e-mail. Please complete the declaration form and submit together with the manuscript (

Accepted manuscripts become the permanent property of MARDI and may not be published elsewhere without prior permission from the publisher. All authors are required to sign a Copyright Transfer form upon acceptance of the manuscript. Permission must be obtained from copyright owner to reproduce materials published elsewhere in the manuscript.

(Revised: October 2019)


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